TNO is a Dutch inde­pen­dent research insti­tute with the mis­sion to con­nect peo­ple and knowl­edge to cre­ate inno­va­tions that boost the sus­tain­able com­pet­i­tive strength of indus­try and the well-being of soci­ety. TNO has some 2800 employ­ees and gen­er­ates a turnover of 531 MEu­ro. TNO con­ducts research in order to achieve impact on the fol­low­ing five themes: Healthy Liv­ing, Indus­try, Ener­gy, Urban­i­sa­tion, and Defence, Safe­ty and Secu­ri­ty. By trans­lat­ing sci­en­tif­ic knowl­edge into prac­ti­cal appli­ca­tions, TNO con­tributes to the inno­va­tion capac­i­ty of busi­ness­es and gov­ern­ment. TNO is involved in many inter­na­tion­al projects (about 30% of the mar­ket turnover), includ­ing EU-fund­ed col­lab­o­ra­tions. In the theme Indus­try, applied research is car­ried out for a wide range of indus­tri­al branch­es. The exper­tise cov­ers the whole process from basic (mate­r­i­al) research, design and engi­neer­ing to man­u­fac­tur­ing and test­ing of prod­ucts and sys­tems. The focus is on inno­va­tion in the areas of high-tech sys­tems and mate­ri­als, smart indus­try, the sus­tain­able chem­i­cal indus­try and space appli­ca­tions. One of the largest mar­kets is that of semi­con­duc­tor equip­ment.